Plato was writing in a time when the humans were not arranged under a single label. The advent of the state had not taken place yet, and there was anarchy prevailing within the territory and it became important for some kind of law and order had to come into place.
Plato, was a known political philosophist of the Greek civilization who is accorded with giving the Theory of Justice that could be practiced within the monarchic society. According to Plato, Justice has two dimensions, on the individual and societal level. On the individual level, justice is seen as a human virtue that makes a person self reliant and self consistence. Whereas, on the societal level, justice is concerned with the social-consciousness in order to make the society harmonious.
Mainly, for him to achieve Justice, it became essential for the people residing within the territory to be able to take up the interest that they are most eligible for. The society has been divided into three broad elements
Wisdom, Courage and Appetite.
Wisdom, is specified for people who have the ability to govern the territory.
Spirit, is for the people who will are courageous and will be included in the security forces.
The wisdom and spirit together are known as The Guardians of the last group Appetite.
Appetite, it comprises of those who take up the remaining occupations, such as -trade, manufacturing, business and the like.
The era in which Plato was writing,he saw the need to create divisions and a structure of hierarchy so that the well being and harmonious living in the society could be achieved. He referred to the importance of using mathematics in the study of the society so that everything could be accurate and no problem will be encountered in the process. But the question that arises is whether equality could ever be ensured if such a system prevailed?
The answer is No… because Plato has written about Justice but has not paid attention to the essence of equality that goes hand in hand with the concept of Justice. The division of the society into three elements which have been prescribed by Plato for the society to run effectively, make clear the inequality that will prevail in the society, with the Guardians ruling over the Appetite.
This is also not practical because if we take a look at the human nature,it is not static and keeps changes with dynamism.Thus, prescribing the three life long occupations, will not work within the society as the shifting of the occupation is not allowed. Also,the method used by Plato to choose the people for the divisions, especially for the Philosopher king, who will be chosen among the group of Wisdom seekers.
Plato states that those who aspire to be the Philosopher king will have to study till the age of 50 years to succeed. But, doesn’t write about the situation if more than one person qualifies for the position. Therefore, the theory given by Plato was not successfully applicable during the ancient times, and can never be applied to this era.
But, he has been credited for giving the theory of justice that could have been successful, if the loop holes would have been skipped.