Shivaji Maratha Jayanti and their Life
Shivaji Jayanti Commemorates The Birth Of Shivaji Bhonsale, Also Known As Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, A Great Maratha Warrior. On This Day, His Life And Contributions Are Recalled Across India, Especially In The State Of Maharashtra. Shivaji Is Revered By Millions Throughout The Country. In Maharashtra, Especially, Numerous Functions Are Organized On This Day; It Is Also Observed As A Government Holiday. In Mumbai and Elsewhere, Dignitaries Pay Tribute to Shivaji and Speak About His Contributions. The Festival Officially Falls On February 19 Every Year As Per The Western Calendar. However, Some Followers Of Shivaji Observe His Birth Anniversary On The Third Day Of Krishnapaksh (Dark Fortnight) Of Phalgunmonth According To The Hindu Calendar .An Illustrious Life On The Occasion Of Shivaji Jayanti, His Admirers Hold Rallies And Indulge In Festivities. Activities On This Day Include Paying Floral Tributes At The Statues And Portraits Of Shivaji. Students Participate In Programmes Held At Educational Institutions.Shivaji Bhonsale, The Son Of Shahji Bhonsale, Was Born In 1627 At The Hill-Fort Of Shivneri Near Pune In Maharashtra. He Was Brought Up By His Mother Jijabai, A Brave And Pious Lady. Shivaji Imbibed All The Qualities Imparted To Him By His Parents And Teachers. He Grew Into A Fearless Warrior, Who Was Also Deeply Religious And Took Immense Pride In His Glorious Heritage. He Died At His Capital Raigad In Maharashtra On April 3, 1680.
Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj
Was The Step Brother Of Chatrapati Shambhaji. He Was The Son Of Shivaji. After The Death Of Sambhaji, He Became The King And Carried On War With The Mughals Till His Death In 1700. During His Reign The Marathas Recovered Many Of Their Forts Captured By The Mughals. They Also Raided Many Mughal Territories And Collected A Good Deal Of Booty.
After The Death Of Chhatrapati Raja Ram His Minor Son Shivaji II Became The Maratha King. His Mothertarabai, A Very Efficient Woman, Became His Regent And Conducted The Affairs Of The State. Under Her Able Guidance The Marathas Once Again Gained Considerable Power.
Shivaji Created And Maintained An Organized And Disciplined Army Consisting Of Infantry, Cavalry And Navy. Shivaji Recruited Only Able Persons In His Army. He Had The Skills To Manage A Huge Army. His Army Mostly Composed Of Light Infantry And Light Cavalry Was Admirably Well-Adapted To Guerilla Warfare And Hill Campaign. The Army Movements Were Extremely Quick.
Forts Played an Important Role in Shivaji’s Military System. Every Fort Was Kept Under Three Officers Of Equal Status. They Acted Together But Served As A Check On One Another.
Shivaji Recognized The Necessity Of A Strong Navy. He Had A Navy Of About 200 Warships. The Creation Of A Navy Shows The Foresight Of Shivaji. A Number of Coastal Fortresses Kept Guard over the Sea. The Portuguese, The British, The Siddis And The Mughals Were Thus Effectively Kept In Check.Nor Were Shivaji’s Intelligence Service Neglected. The Espionage System Formed A Well-Paid And Efficient Wing Of The Maratha Army.
Revenue System: Shivaji Laid Down An Excellent Revenue System Based On The Principles Adopted By Todar Mal And Malik Ambar. His Officers Made An Elaborate Survey Of The Land And Fixed The Rent At 33 Per Cent Of The Gross Produce. Shivaji Afterwards Demanded A Consolidated Rent Of 40 Per Cent. It Is However; Wrong To Assume That Shivaji Abolished The Jagirdari System.
Art And Culture:
Shivaji Was A Patron Of Art And Culture, Piety And Letters. Prominent Among The Saintly Persons Whom Shivaji Admired Were Ramdas, Tukaram, Baba Yakub, Mauni Baba, Etc. Sanskrit Poets Like Jairam, Paramananda, Gaga Bhatt, And Some Hindi Poets Received His Patronage.
Administrative System Of Shivaji:
The Administrative System Of Shivaji Was Largely Borrowed From The Administrative Practices Of The Deccan States. It Was Also Influenced By The Principles Laid Down In Kautilya’s Arthasastra And The Dharmasastras. In The Discharge Of His Duties He Was Assisted By A Council Of Ministers.
Provincial Administration: Shivaji Divided The Territory Under His Direct Rule (Which He Called The Swaraj Territory) Into A Number Of Provinces. The Ancient Institution Of The Panchyat Was Preserved In The Rural Areas. The Head Of The Village, Administered The Village With The Help Of The Panchyat.
Rani Tarabai (Maratha Queen)
Tarabai, Also Known As Rani Tarabai, Was The Maratha Queen And The Wife Of The Rajaram, Son Of chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. After The Death of Raja Ram Maharaj, Tara Bai Became The Became The De Facto Head Of Government. She Crowned Her Son Shivaji II, Then A Child Of Four, And Became His Regent.
Tarabai Is Remembered For Continuing The Maratha War Of Independence And Defending The Territories Of The Marathas. The Queen Of Maratha Empire Was A Spirited Lady Who Did Not Waste Time Or Tears On The Fall Of The New Maratha Capital Satara Within A Month Of Rajaram‘S Death. She Infused Vigor In Her People And Organized A Tough Opposition To Aurangzeb.
Tarabai Exhibited Wonderful Powers Of Organization And Inspired The Marathas With A Sense Of Devotion To Their National Cause. Aurangzeb, Therefore, Directed His Forces For The Conquest Of Panhala And Vishalgarh, The Two Strong Fortresses Which Became The Seats Of The Maratha Court. The Marathas Constantly Hovered Round The Emperor’s Camp And Carried Away Everything That They Could. The Emperor Captured Several Maratha Forts, But Lost Them One By One.
Under The Leadership Of Rani Tarabai, The Maratha Power Grew Stronger And Stronger With The Result That Aurangzeb Was Compelled To Be On The Defensive. The Maratha Empire In India, During The Last Year Of The Aged Emperor’s Reign, Proceeded Beyond Maharashtra And Led Distant Expeditions Into Malwa And Gujarat. They Ravaged Burhanpur, Surat, Broach And Other Rich Towns Of The Western Coast. They Established Their Rule Over Southern Karnatak. In The Midst Of These Difficulties Aurangzeb Died On March 2, 1707.
Tarabai Skilfully Managed The Affairs Of Maharashtra In The Name Of Her Son, Shivaji II. The Main Supporters Of Tarabai Were Were Paras Ram Trimbak, Dhanaji Jadhav And Shankarji Narain, With Whose Assistance She Prosecuted The War With Vigor And Success. She Moved Constantly From Fort To Fort In Order To Direct Operations And Encourage Her Men. The Success Of Maratha War Of Independence Was In No Small Measure Due To The Indomitable Personality Of The Maratha Queen.
After The Death Of Chhatrapati Shahu, Rani Tarabai Claimed That Ramaraja Is The Son Of Shivaji II. She Also Managed To Crown Rajaram To The Throne. But, Tarabai Exercised Too Much Control Over Ramaraja Which Led To A Quarrel Between The Two.
However, Tarabai Had Much Influence Over The Maratha Empire. She Remains One Of The Most Celebrated Women In Indian History.